Hormones are molecules/chemical messengers that are synthesized and secreted by special cells in our endocrine glands. Examples of the glands where the hormones are made are:
- Pituitary gland
- Pineal gland
- Adrenal glands
These organs secrete hormones in microscopic amounts but this very small amount can bring about major changes in the body. The hormones enter the blood stream which carries them to the different organs and tissues of the body to exert their functions. Their action is determined by the presence of specific hormone receptor cells in the tissues and organs. These receptors are located on the surface of the cells or within the cells. In the presence of a specific hormone, the cell’s machinery is turned on and this can cause an increase in metabolism, increase in protein synthesis, increase in cellular repair, and increase in cellular replication.
There are many types of hormones that act on different aspects of bodily functions and processes. The table below summarizes most of the various hormones, their source, effects, and target organs.
|Hypothalamus||Releasing & inhibitory hormones||Pituitary Gland||Stimulates release/inhibition of hormones|
|Anterior Pituitary||Growth Hormone (HGH)||All cells of body||Stimulates growth in all organs/tissues, increases protein synthesis, mobilizes fat to be used as energy, inhibits carbohydrate metabolism|
|Anterior Pituitary||Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)||Thyroid Gland||Controls the secretion of the thyroid hormones|
|Anterior Pituitary||Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)||Adrenal Cortex||Controls the secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex|
|Anterior Pituitary||Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)||Ovaries and Testes||Growth and release of female’s eggs, stimulates sperm production in males.|
|Anterior Pituitary||Luteinizing Hormone (LH)||Increase triggers ovulation in females; stimulates testes to produce/release testosterone|
|Posterior Pituitary||Antidiurectic Hormone (ADH)||Kidneys||Stimulates water retention by the kidneys|
|Adrenal Medulla||Epinephrine||Most cells of the body||Mobilize glucose, increases heart rate, heart contractility, oxygen use and blood flow to skeletal muscles
Constricts blood vessels and elevates blood pressure.
|Adrenal Cortex||Aldosterone||Kidneys||Regulates electrolyte and fluid balance.|
|Adrenal Cortex||Cortisol||Most cells in the body||Increases blood sugar levels, aids the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins, suppresses the immune system, has anti-inflammatory action.|
|Pancreas||Insulin||All cells in the body||Controls blood glucose by lowering blood glucose levels|
|Pancreas||Glucagon||All cells in the body||Increases blood glucose, stimulates breakdown of glycogen and fat|
|Kidneys||Renin||Adrenal cortex||Assists in blood pressure control|
|Gonads||Testosterone||Sex organs and muscles||Development of male sex organs, facial hair and change in voice, promotes muscle growth|
|Gonads||Estrogen||Sex organs and fat||Development of female sex organs, regulates menstrual cycle, storage of fat|
|Thyroid Gland||Thyroid Hormone||All cells in the body||Helps regulate body temperature and metabolism|
|Pineal Gland||Melatonin||Brain||affects the modulation of sleep patterns in both seasonal and circadian rhythms|
All aspects of aging are influenced by our hormones. As we age our hormone production decreases and the cellular receptor sites can become less sensitive to the hormones. With receptor resistance we then need more of the hormone to affect the wanted cellular changes and to feel better. This is why we want our hormone levels to not just be in the “normal” range, rather we want the levels to be optimized and on the high end of “normal”. By optimizing our hormone levels we can improve and prolong our quality of life and the research supports this. At Prestige Medical Rejuvenation Center we can’t promise you we will add years to your life. But, we can add life to your years. Call us today to see if you are a good candidate. (402)334-5433.